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Graphene-doped photo-patternable ionogels: tuning of conductivity and mechanical stability of 3D microstructures

Oubaha, Mohamed and Kavanagh, Andrew and Gorin, Arnaud and Bickauskaite, Gabija and Byrne, Robert and Farsari, Maria and Winfield, Richard and Diamond, Dermot and McDonagh, Colette and Copperwhite, Robert (2012) Graphene-doped photo-patternable ionogels: tuning of conductivity and mechanical stability of 3D microstructures. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 22 . pp. 10552-10559. ISSN 0959-9428

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Abstract

This work reports for the first time the development of enhanced conductivity, graphene- doped photo-patternable hybrid organic-inorganic ionogels and the effect of the subsequent materials condensation on the conductivity and mechanical stability of three- dimensional microstructures fabricated by multi-photon polymerisation (MPP). Ionogels were based on photocurable silicon/zirconium hybrid sol-gel materials and phosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide [P6,6,6,14][DCA] ionic liquid (IL). To optimise the dispersion of graphene within the ionogel matrices, aqueous solutions of graphene were prepared, as opposed to the conventional graphene powder approach, and employed as catalysts of hydrolysis and condensation reactions occurring in the sol-gel process. Ionogels were prepared via a two step process by varying the hydrolysis degree from 25 to 50%, IL content between 0-50 w/w%, and the inorganic modifier (zirconate complex) concentration from 30 to 60 mol.% against the photocurable ormosil and they were characterised via Raman, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. MPP was performed on the hybrid ionogels, resulting in three- dimensional microstructures that were characterised using scanning electron microscopy. It is clearly demonstrated that the molecular formulation of the ionogels, including the concentration of graphene and the zirconate network modifier, play a critical role in the conductivity of the ionogels and influence the resulting mechanical stability of the fabricated three-dimensional microstructures. This work aims to establish for the first time the relationship between the molecular design and condensation of materials in the physico-chemistry and dynamic of ionogels.

Item Type:Article (Published)
Refereed:Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords:graphene; ionogels
Subjects:Physical Sciences > Thin films
Physical Sciences > Electrochemistry
Physical Sciences > Chemistry
Physical Sciences > Photonics
DCU Faculties and Centres:DCU Faculties and Schools > Faculty of Science and Health > School of Chemical Sciences
Research Initiatives and Centres > CLARITY: The Centre for Sensor Web Technologies
Research Initiatives and Centres > National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR)
Publisher:Royal Society of Chemistry
Official URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C2JM30512G
Copyright Information:© 2012 RSC
Use License:This item is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License. View License
Funders:Enterprise Ireland under the grant TD/08/309, Science Foundation Ireland under grant 07/CE/I1147, SFI- funded National Access Programme (NAP) grant NAP210, Enterprise Ireland grant 07/RFP/MASF812, which is part of EU-MATERA initiative, SFI-funded National Access Program (NAP 315)., LaserLab initiative (ulf- forth001681)
ID Code:16962
Deposited On:16 May 2012 15:45 by Andrew Kavanagh. Last Modified 03 Apr 2013 04:02

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