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Operation of a free electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window

Ackermann, W. and Asova, G. and Ayvazyan, V. and Azima, A. and Baboi, N. and Bähr, J. and Balandin, V. and Beutner, B. and Brandt, A. and Bolzmann, A. and Brinkmann, R. and Brovko, O.I. and Castellano, M. and Castro, P. and Catani, L. and Chiadroni, E. and Choroba, S. and Cianchi, A. and Costello, John T. and Cubaynes, D. and Dardis, John and Decking, W. and Delsim-Hashemi, H. and Delserieys, A. and Di Pirro, G. and Dohlus, M. and Düsterer, S. and Eckhardt, A. and Edwards, A. and Faatz, B. and Feldhaus, J. and Flöttmann, A. and Frisch, J. and Fröhlich, L. and Garvey, T. and Gensch, U. and Gerth, Ch. and Görler, M. and Golubeva, N. and Ivanisenko, H.-J. Y. and Jaeschke, E. and Jalmuzna, W. and Jezynski, W. and Kammering, R. and Katalev, V. and Kavanagh, Kevin D. and Kennedy, Eugene T. and Khodyachykh, S. and Klose, K. and Kocharyan, V. and Körfer, M. and Kollewe, M. and Koprek, W. and Lipka, S. and Löhl, F. and Luna, H. and Luong, M. and Martins, M. and Meyer, M. and Michelato, P. and Miltchev, V. and Möller, W.D. and Monaco, L. and Müller, W.F.O. and Napieralski, O. and Napoly, O. and Nicolosi, P. and Nölle, D. and Nũnez, T. and Petrosyan, G. and Petrosyan, L. and Pflüger, J. and Plönjes, E. and Poletto, L. and Pozniak, K. and Prat, E. and Proch, D. and Pucyk, P. and Radcliffe, P. and Redlin, H. and Rehlich, K. and Richter, M. and Roehrs, M. and Roensch, J. and Romaniuk, R. and Ross, M. and Rossbach, J. and Rybnikov, V. and Sachwitz, M. and Saldin, E.L. and Sandner, W. and Schlarb, H. and Schmidt, B. and Schmitz, M. and Schmüser, P. and Schneider, J.R. and Schneidmiller, E.A. and Schnepp, S. and Schreiber, S. and Seidel, M. and Sertore, D. and Shabunov, A.V. and Simon, C. and Simrock, S. and Sombrowski, E. and Sorokin, A.A. and Spanknebel, P. and Spesyvtsev, R. and Staykov, L. and Steffen, B. and Stephan, F. and Stulle, F. and Thom, H. and Tiedtke, K. and Tischer, M. and Toleikis, S. and Treusch, R. and Trines, D. and Tsakov, I and Vogel, E. and Weiland, T. and Weise, H. and Wellhöfer, M. and Wendt, M. and Will, I. and Winter, A. and Wittenburg, K. and Wurth, W. and Yeates, Pat and Yurkov, M.V. and Zagorodnov, I. and Zapfe, K. and Petrosyan, B. (2007) Operation of a free electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window. Nature Photonics, 1 . ISSN 1749-4885

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Abstract

We report results on the performance of a free electron laser operating at a wavelength of 13.7 nm where unprecedented peak and average powers for a coherent EUV radiation source have been measured. In the saturation regime the peak energy approached 170 μJ for individual pulses while the average energy per pulse reached 70 μJ. The pulse duration was in the region of 10 femtoseconds and peak powers of 10 GW were achieved. At a pulse repetition frequency of 700 pulses per second, the average EUV power reached 20 mW. The output beam also contained a significant contribution from odd harmonics of approximately 0.6% and 0.03% for the 3rd (4.6 nm) and the 5th (2.75 nm) harmonics, respectively. At 2.75 nanometers the 5th harmonic of the radiation reaches deep into the water window – a wavelength range that is crucially important for the investigation of biological samples.

Item Type:Article (Published)
Refereed:Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords:EUV; lasers;
Subjects:Physical Sciences > Physics
Physical Sciences > Lasers
DCU Faculties and Centres:Research Initiatives and Centres > National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST)
DCU Faculties and Schools > Faculty of Science and Health > School of Physical Sciences
Official URL:http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1038/nphoton.2007.76
Use License:This item is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License. View License
ID Code:76
Deposited On:01 May 2007 by DORAS Administrator. Last Modified 30 Jan 2009 14:01

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