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Ionic liquid-based, liquid-junction-free reference elctrode

Cicmil, Dimitrije and Anastasova, Salzitsa and Kavanagh, Andrew and Diamond, Dermot and Mattinen, Ulriika and Bobacka, Johan and Lewenstam, Andrzej and Radu, Aleksandar (2011) Ionic liquid-based, liquid-junction-free reference elctrode. Electroanalysis . ISSN 1040-0397

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In this paper, we describe a new type of polymer membrane-based reference electrode (RE) based on ionic liquids (ILs), in both liquid-contact (LCRE) and solid-contact reference electrode (SCRE) forms. The ILs used were bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)amid with 1-alkyl-3methyimidazolium as well as phosphonium and ammonium cations. In addition to their charge stabilisation role, it was found that the ILs also functioned as effective plasticizers in the PVC matrix. The LCREs and SCREs were prepared using the same design as their corresponding indicator electrodes. LCREs were prepared by casting in glass rings while SCREs were prepared on platforms made using screen-printing technology, with poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5 diyl) (POT) as the intermediate polymer. After potentiometric characterization of the response mechanism, the practical performance of the REs was studied using potentiometric titrations (Pb2+ and pH), and characterised using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. All results were compared via parallel experiments in which the novel RE was substituted by a conventional double junction Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The mechanism of response is most likely based on a limited degree of partitioning of IL ions into the sample thereby defining aquo-membrane interfacial potential. Despite their simple nature and construction, the REs showed excellent signal stability, and performed well in the analytical experiments. The identical mode of fabrication to that of the equivalent indicator (or Ion-Selective) electrode (ISE) will facilitate mass-production of both indicator and reference electrode using the same fabrication line, the only difference being the final capping membrane composition.

Item Type:Article (Published)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Reference electrode; Polymer membrane; Ion selective electrode; Ionic liquid; Electrochemical sensors; Potentiometry; Cyclic voltammetry; Impedance spectroscopy
Subjects:Physical Sciences > Analytical chemistry
Physical Sciences > Electrochemistry
Physical Sciences > Environmental chemistry
DCU Faculties and Centres:DCU Faculties and Schools > Faculty of Science and Health > School of Chemical Sciences
Research Initiatives and Centres > National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR)
Research Initiatives and Centres > CLARITY: The Centre for Sensor Web Technologies
Publisher:Wiley-VCH Verlag Berlin
Official URL:
Copyright Information:© 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. The official version can be found at
Funders:Science Foundation Ireland under grant 07/CE/I1147, SFI-funded National Access Programme (NAP) grant NAP210, Enterprise Ireland grant 07/RFP/MASF812, which is part of EU-MATERA initiative, Research Fellowship and Research Career Start Award 2008
ID Code:16366
Deposited On:21 Jul 2011 11:51 by Andrew Kavanagh. Last Modified 01 Feb 2017 11:48

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