Estimation of toxic elements in the samples of different cigarettes and their impact on human health of Irish hypertensive consumers
Afridi, Hassan Imran and Gul Kazi, Tasneem and Naz Talpur, Farah and Brabazon, Dermot and Naher, Sumsun (2013) Estimation of toxic elements in the samples of different cigarettes and their impact on human health of Irish hypertensive consumers. Clinica Chimica Acta, 426 . pp. 51-57. ISSN 0009-8981
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Background: Cigarette smoking interferes with the metal homeostasis of the human body, which plays a crucial role for maintaining the health. A significant flux of heavy metals, among other toxins, reaches the lungs through smoking. In the present study, the relationship between toxic element (TE) exposure via cigarette smoking and hypertension incidence in population living in Dublin, Ireland is investigated. Methods: The different brands of cigarette (filler tobacco, filter and ash) consumed by the studied population were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb). The concentrations of TEs in biological samples and different components of cigarette were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. Results: The filler tobacco of different branded cigarettes contains Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations in the ranges of 1.73-2.02, 0.715-1.52 and 0378-1.16 pg/cigarette, respectively. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd, Ni and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of hypertensive patients in relation to healthy controls, while the difference was significant in the case of smoker patients (p < 0.001). The levels of all the three TEs were 2-3 folds higher in scalp hair and blood samples of non-hypertensive smoker subjects as compared to nonsmoker controls. Conclusion: The high exposure of toxic metals as a result of cigarette smoking may be synergistic with risk factors associated with hypertension.
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