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Cycling on rough roads: a model for resistance and vibration

Turner, Miles M. orcid logoORCID: 0000-0001-9713-6198 (2024) Cycling on rough roads: a model for resistance and vibration. Vehicle System Dynamics . ISSN 0042-3114

Minimising opposing forces is a matter of interest to most cyclists. These forces arise from passage through air (``drag'') and interaction with the road surface (``resistance''). Recent work recognises that resistance forces arise not only from the deformation of the tyre (``rolling resistance'') but also from irregularities in the road surface (``roughness resistance''), which lead to power dissipation in the body of the rider through vibration. The latter effect may also have an adverse impact on human health. In this work we offer a quantitative theory of roughness resistance and vibration that links these effects to a surface characterisation in terms of the International Roughness Index (IRI). We show that the roughness resistance and the Vibration Dose Value (or VDV, the usual vibration dosage metric) can be expressed in terms of elementary formulae. The roughness resistance depends only on the vertical stiffness of the bicycle and the roughness index. Surprisingly, other apparently relevant parameters, such as physiological characteristics of the bicycle rider and other features of the bicycle, do not enter. For roads of moderate roughness, roughness resistance is larger than rolling resistance. For very rough roads, roughness resistance is larger than aerodynamic drag. So only on roads of high quality (in most jurisdictions, accounting for less than 10~\% of the total) can roughness resistance be ignored. Roughness resistance can be mitigated by reducing the vertical stiffness of the bicycle. In common with other recent reports, we find that almost any cycling activity will breach public health guidelines relating to Vibration Dose Value.
Item Type:Article (Published)
Uncontrolled Keywords:bicycle model; rolling resistance; roughness resistance; International Roughness Index; Vibration Dose Value; whole body vibration
Subjects:Engineering > Mechanical engineering
Medical Sciences > Sports sciences
Physical Sciences > Physics
Mathematics > Applied Mathematics
DCU Faculties and Centres:DCU Faculties and Schools > Faculty of Science and Health > School of Physical Sciences
Publisher:Taylor & Francis
Official URL:https://doi.org/10.1080/00423114.2024.2304031
Copyright Information:© 2024 Taylor & Francis
ID Code:29609
Deposited On:16 Feb 2024 17:18 by Miles Turner . Last Modified 16 Feb 2024 17:18

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